Handheld XRF (x-ray fluorescence) is a powerful, non-destructive technique that can identify and quantify multiple elements simultaneously. The instrument has a wide range of applications including metal identification, determination of the presence of lead, soil analysis, coating analysis, and stain analysis. XRF works by emitting an x-ray beam capable of displacing electrons in the inner … Continue reading Handheld XRF Analysis for Identification of Stains, Lead Paint, Zinc Primer, Galvanizing, and Aluminum Substrate
In concrete, steel is often embedded to reinforce the concrete, providing tensile and flexural strength. This combination of steel and concrete allows for some of the most durable and beautiful structures to be built. Concrete, as a building material, has superior compressive strength to most materials, and is durable in many different exposure environments. However, … Continue reading How the pH of Concrete is Related to Corrosion Protection
One of the most common chemical analyses performed on concrete is chloride analysis. Grouts, mortars, soils, and water samples are also often tested for chloride. Chloride is a negatively charged ion that has the ability to react with the iron in steel reinforcing, causing corrosion. This can lead to cracking of concrete due to the … Continue reading Why does chloride in concrete matter? What’s the difference between water-soluble chloride and acid-soluble chloride?
In 2013, marble tiles were installed as pedestrian pavers on the exterior plaza of a new condominium built near the Atlantic coast in Florida. After three years of being in service, the marble tiles started exhibiting orangish brown surface staining that had a similar appearance to iron oxide staining. Replacement of the marble tiles would … Continue reading Case Study: Staining of Exterior Marble Tile Caused by Cold Applied Asphaltic Waterproofing Membrane: Solved by FTIR Analysis